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Polemonium caeruleum L. Polemoniaceae Jacob's ladder, Greek Valerian. Hardy perennial. Distribution: Temperate Europe. Dioscorides in 70 AD (Beck, 2005), and Lyte (1578) recommended it drunk in wine, for malignant ulcers, dysentery, difficulty in micturition, hip disease. The root was worn round the neck to protect against scorpions, and stopped toothache if chewed. Called Valerian Graeca by Dodoens (1551) and Parkinson (1640), Valeriana peregrina Belgarum by Lobel (1576). Photographed in the Medicinal Garden of the Royal College of Physicians, London.