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Hepatitis antigen. Parts 1 & 2.

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Credit: Hepatitis antigen. Parts 1 & 2. Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0)

About this work


In a two-part lecture, Professor Arie J Zuckerman lectures of viral hepatitis, differentiating throughout between hepatitis A and hepatitis B. He describes how it to accurately diagnose it from symptoms and more detailed tests and focuses, in particular, on the antigens produced by the condition and how they affect the body.


London : University of London Audio-Visual Centre, 1974.

Physical description

1 encoded moving image (45.24 min.) : sound, black and white.



Copyright note

University of London

Terms of use

Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial 2.0 UK: England & Wales

Language note

In English

Creator/production credits

Presented by Arie J Zuckerman, Professor of Virology, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. Produced by David R Clark. Made for British Postgraduate Medical Federation. Made by University of London Audio-Visual Centre.


This video is one of around 310 titles, originally broadcast on Channel 7 of the ILEA closed-circuit television network, given to Wellcome Trust from the University of London Audio-Visual Centre shortly after it closed in the late 1980s. Although some of these programmes might now seem rather out-dated, they probably represent the largest and most diversified body of medical video produced in any British university at this time, and give a comprehensive and fascinating view of the state of medical and surgical research and practice in the 1970s and 1980s, thus constituting a contemporary medical-historical archive of great interest. The lectures mostly take place in a small and intimate studio setting and are often face-to-face. The lecturers use a wide variety of resources to illustrate their points, including film clips, slides, graphs, animated diagrams, charts and tables as well as 3-dimensional models and display boards with movable pieces. Some of the lecturers are telegenic while some are clearly less comfortable about being recorded; all are experts in their field and show great enthusiasm to share both the latest research and the historical context of their specialist areas.


Segment 1 Professor Zuckerman describes viral hepatitis, differentiating between hepatitis A and B. He presents a list of other diseases which may be connected with hepatitis such as yellow fever. After briefly recounting the earliest known reference to hepatitis in the bible, Zuckerman begins to describe the clinical features of the disease. Time start: 00:00:00:00 Time end: 00:05:05:20 Length: 00:05:05:20
Segment 2 Zuckerman focuses, in particular, on how viral hepatitis is transmitted. Infection can occur from tattooing or any procedure which involves piercing the skin. In tropical countries it can be spread by blood-sucking insects. He describes, too, how hepatitis can be passed on through the use of intravenous syringes by drug addicts. Time start: 00:05:05:20 Time end: 00:11:53:00 Length: 00:06:47:05
Segment 3 A short film is shown of a scientist in a laboratory carrying out a reverse passive haemagglutination test to detect hepatitis antigen in the blood. When the film clip finishes, Zuckerman shows a table which lists the different levels of sensitivity of various diagnostic tests. A further short film is shown in which the radioimmunoassay technique for detecting hepatitis antigens in the blood is demonstrated. Time start: 00:11:53:00 Time end: 00:16:19:00 Length: 00:04:26:00
Segment 4 Zuckerman continues to examine the appearance of hepatitis antigens in the blood, referring now to photomicrographs and charts. Time start: 00:16:19:00 Time end: 00:20:34:00 Length: 00:04:15:00
Segment 5 Zuckerman shows slides relating to the incidence of hepatitis amongst patients undergoing dialysis treatment. He explains why hepatitis is so common amongst these patients and suggests hygiene and screening procedures that might be used to reduce the number of cases. End credits. Time start: 00:20:34:00 Time end: 00:27:02:14 Length: 00:06:28:14
Segment 6 Opening credits for Part 2. Zuckerman begins to discuss research to find treatments for hepatitis. He describes how difficult a condition it is to treat. A short film of an antigen being produced in a laboratory is shown. After the film ends, Zuckerman describes how hepatitis can be passed on through the blood donor programme. This is relatively low in the UK but in tropical countries as many as 20% of the population are carrying hepatitis antigens in their blood. Time start: 00:27:02:14 Time end: 00:32:05:00 Length: 00:05:02:11
Segment 7 Zuckerman discusses a photomicrograph of the Dane particle which is considered to be the hepatitis B virus. He describes in detail the work of Dr Krugman in New York to develop a hepatitis B vaccine. Time start: 00:32:05:00 Time end: 00:38:00:13 Length: 00:05:55:13
Segment 8 A short film is shown in which isoteric focusing is used to show the separation of hepatitis antigens in the blood. Their appearance is discussed. After the film clip, Zuckerman talks about research into the use of hepatitis vaccines on marmosets. Zuckerman ends by discussing future research into a vaccination for hepatitis A. Time start: 00:38:00:13 Time end: 00:45:24:06 Length: 00:07:23:18


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