Proton CT of a human skull

  • Nigel Allinson, University of Lincoln
  • Digital Images
  • Online

Available online

view Proton CT of a human skull

Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)

You can use this work for any purpose, including commercial uses, without restriction under copyright law. You should also provide attribution to the original work, source and licence. Read more about this licence.


Proton CT of a human skull. Nigel Allinson, University of Lincoln. Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0). Source: Wellcome Collection.

Selected images from this work

View 1 image

About this work


3D rendering of the skull of an adult male receiving X-ray radiotherapy, viewed from the side. A clinical proton CT has not yet been produced to date. This is a simulation using X-ray data of a patient receiving radiotherapy where every X-ray event has been converted to its proton equivalent. 180 image projections were then processed using a new algorithm to create the image seen here. Proton beam radiotherapy is rapidly becoming a recognised treatment for certain cancers, especially in children and young people. To target the tumour site while minimising the exposure to healthy surrounding tissue it is necessary to image using the same particles (protons) that are used for therapy. The advantage of using high-energy treatment protons to construct the CT scan instead of much lower energy X-ray photons is that registration errors are reduced from ±4% to less than ±1%. Proton therapy could be used in many more cases and with better outcomes.

Permanent link