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Neuromuscular junction from a Drosophila larva showing a nerve synapse atttached to a muscle fibre. The transmission of signals in shown via synaptic vesicles containing neurotransmitter substance (shown in red). These vesicles are in close accosiation with the microtubule-based synaptic core cytoskeleton o the nerve, which is shown in green.
- Hermann Aberle, University of Munster
Erythroxylum coca Lam. Erythroxylaceae Coca. Distribution: Peru . Cocaine is extracted from the leaf. It is no longer in the UK Pharmacopoeia (used to be used as a euphoriant in ‘Brompton Mixture’ for terminally ill patients). Cocaine, widely used as a local anaesthetic until 1903, inhibits re-uptake of dopamine and serotonin at brain synapses so these mood elevating chemicals build up and cause a ‘high’. Its use was often fatal. Coca leaf chewing was described by Nicolas Monardes (1569
- Dr Henry Oakeley