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Pinus mugo Turra, Pinaceae Mountain pine. Distribution: Mountain regions in south and central Europe. Source of pine cone syrup used in cooking. Pine trees in general have a small edible pine nut in the pine cone, which Lyte (1578) writes are 'good for the lungs, they cleanse the breast, and cause the fleme to be spit out: also they nourish well and engender good blood, and for this cause they are good for such as have the cough.' He wrote that it was used for burns, wounds, dysentery, and as a diuretic. Quincy says of fir (Pinus) cones that they strengthen the genital parts, and increase the quantity of seed, or increase Desire without adding to Ability or Performance. Photographed in the Medicinal Garden of the Royal College of Physicians, London.
- Dr Henry Oakeley