Management of a normal birth in a continental clinic. Part 3, Stage of expulsion.

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Management of a normal birth in a continental clinic. Part 3, Stage of expulsion. Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0). Source: Wellcome Collection.

About this work


The third stage of labour. 5 segments.


Germany, 1926.

Physical description

1 encoded moving image : silent, black and white.



Copyright note

British Medical Association.

Terms of use

Some restrictions


Segment 1 The mother is shown lying on a bed holding straps attached to the end of the bed. The intertitles explain that pulling on the straps increases the force of her pushes. Her abdomen is seen in close up as she strains. She is shown in another pushing position, with a doctor and nurse holding her legs close to the body, as she grips her thighs with her hands. The perineum is shown. The doctor uses Schwarzenbach's grip to ascertain whether the baby's head is on the pelvic floor. The mother is placed on her side to relieve the pains. Time start: 00:00:00:00 Time end: 00:05:29:01 Length: 00:05:29:01
Segment 2 The intertitles note that the processes seen in the film do not follow each other so rapidly in actuality. The appearance of the scalp in the vulva is shown. Meconium is passed. The anus begins to gape. The intertitles state that during delivery, the uterus should only be palpated now and again for a very brief period to see whether there is pain. The scalp is shown in the vulva in the lateral view. The struggle between the head and the perineum is shown; the head stretches the perineum and the perineum pushes the head back during the interval between pains. The head is shown appearing in the vulva in slow motion. Time start: 00:05:29:01 Time end: 00:10:47:03 Length: 00:05:18:02
Segment 3 Meconium is passed. The membranes still covering the head of the baby glide back slowly. The labia majora are far apart and the anus gapes widely. The caput succedaneum on the right parietal bone can now be seen, and the perineum is greatly stretched. Time start: 00:10:47:03 Time end: 00:15:06:00 Length: 00:04:18:22
Segment 4 Reel Two, the Birth of the Child, begins. The head begins to emerge. It is shown in slow motion, with no hand protecting the perineum, though the intertitles note that this is only done to show the processes clearly. The head is free and mucus escapes from the baby's mouth and nose. Time start: 00:15:06:00 Time end: 00:20:30:24 Length: 00:05:24:24
Segment 5 The eyes are cleaned. The intertitles explain that in this case, the delivery of the shoulders will not be assisted. The trunk is expelled by Kristeller's Method. Another birth is shown in slow motion, this one with the fetus being slightly rotated clockwise (LOA). The child's first cry is shown. The mucus is wiped out of the child's mouth. The umbilical cord is tied and cut. Time start: 00:20:30:24 Time end: 00:27:05:11 Length: 00:06:34:12

Creator/production credits

Produced by Dr Von Mikulicz Radecki and Berlin University


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