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Set of sixty miniature heads used in phrenology, Manchester,

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Free to use with attribution CC BYCredit: Science Museum, London
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Phrenology originated with Franz Joseph Gall (1758-1828), a German physician, assisted by his colleague, Johann Kaspar Spurzheim (1809-72). Phrenologists believed that the shape and size of various areas of the brain (and therefore the overlying skull) determined personality. Gall and Spurzheim eventually disagreed and went on to promote rival systems of phrenology. These heads are numbered according to Spurzheim’s classification. The heads may have been used to teach phrenology but were probably made as a general reference collection. A wide range of different heads are present. For instance, head number 54 is that of a scientific man; head number 8 is recorded as the head of an ‘idiot’. The heads were made by William Bally, who studied under Spurzheim from 1828 onwards. maker: Bally, William Place made: England, United Kingdom

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Science Museum, London



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Set of sixty miniature heads used in phrenology, Manchester,. Credit: Science Museum, London. CC BY


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